RadCom Starting out in Morse extra
Getting started in Morse June 2013
FIGURE 3: Q signals for amateur radio operators.
QRA What is the name of your station? The name of my station is ___.
QRG Will you tell me my exact frequency? Your exact frequency is ___ kHz.
QRH Does my frequency vary? Your frequency varies.
QRI How is the tone of my transmission? The tone of your transmission is ___ (1-Good, 2-Variable, 3-Bad.)
QRK What is the intelligibility of my signals? The intelligibility of your signals is ___ (1-Bad, 2-Poor, 3-Fair, 4-Good, 5-Excellent.)
QRL Are you busy? I am busy, please do not interfere
QRM Is my transmission being interfered with? Your transmission is being interfered with ___ (1-Nil, 2- Slightly, 3-Moderately, 4-Severly, 5-Extremely.)
QRN Are you troubled by static? I am troubled by static ___ (1-5 as under QRM.)
QRO Shall I increase power? Increase power.
QRP Shall I decrease power? Decrease power.
QRQ Shall I send faster? Send faster (___ WPM.)
QRS Shall I send more slowly? Send more slowly (___ WPM.)
QRT Shall I stop sending? Stop sending.
QRU Have you anything for me? I have nothing for you.
QRV Are you ready? I am ready.
QRX When will you call me again? I will call you again at ___ hours.
QRZ Who is calling me? You are being called by ___.
QSA What is the strength of my signals? The strength of your signals is ___ (1-Scarcely perceptible, 2-Weak, 3-Fairly Good, 4-Good, 5-Very Good.)
QSB Are my signals fading? Your signals are fading.
QSD Is my keying defective? Your keying is defective.
QSK Can you hear me between you signals and if so can I break in on your transmission? I can hear you between my signals, break in on my transmission.
QSL Can you acknowledge receipt? I am acknowledging receipt.
QSO Can you communicate with ___ direct or by relay? I can communicate with ___ direct (or by relay through ___.)
QSP Will you relay to ___? I will relay to ___.
QSV Shall I send a series of Vs on this frequency? Send a series of Vs on this frequency.
QSY Shall I change to another frequency? Change to another frequency.
QTC How many messages have you to send? I have ___ messages for you.
QTH What is your location? My location is ___.
QUA Have you news of ___? I have news of ___.
Note: The Q signals take the form of a question when followed by a question mark.
FIGURE 4: Useful abbreviations.
AM Amplitude Modulation
BCI Broadcast Interference
BCL Broadcast Listener
BCNU Be seeing you
BK Break, Break in
BN All between; Been
BT Separation (break) between addr & text; between txt & signature
BUG Semi-Automatic key
C Yes, Correct
CFM Confirm; I confirm
CL I am closing my station; Call
CQ Calling any station
CU See You
CUL See You later
CW Continuous wave
DE From, This Is
ES And FB – Fine Business, excellent
FM Frequency Modulation: From
GA Go ahead; Good Afternoon
GB Good bye, God Bless
GE Good Evening
GM Good morning
GN Good night
HH Error in sending
HI The telegraph laugh; High
HR Here; Hear
HW How, How Copy?
IMI Repeat, Say Again
LID A poor operator
LTR Later; letter
MSG Message; Prefix to radiogram
N No, Negative, Incorrect, No More
NCS Net Control Station
ND Nothing Doing NIL – Nothing; I have nothing for you
NM No more
NW Now; I resume transmission
OB Old boy
OC Old chap
OM Old man
OT Old timer; Old top
R Received as transmitted; Are; Decimal Point
RE Concerning; Regarding
REF Refer to; Referring to; Reference
RFI Radio frequency interference
RIG Station equipment
RPT Repeat, Report
RTTY Radio teletype
RST Readability, strength, tone
RX Receive, Receiver
SASE Self-addressed, stamped envelope
SIG Signature; Signal
SINE Operator’s personal initials or nickname
SSB Single Side Band
SVC Service; Prefix to service message
TTS That is
TU Thank you
TVI Television interference
TX Transmitter; Transmit
UR Your; You’re
VFB Very fine business
VFO Variable Frequency Oscillator
WL Well; Will
WPM Words Per Minute
YL Young lady
73 Best Regards
88 Love and kisses
FIGURE 5: RST system.
2 Barely readable, occasional words distinguishable
3 Readable with considerable difficulty
4 Readable with practically no difficulty
5 Perfectly readable
1 Faint signals, barely perceptible
2 Very weak signals
3 Weak signals
4 Fair signals
5 Fairly good signals
6 Good signals
7 Moderately strong signals
8 Strong signals
9 Extremely strong signals
1 Sixty cycle AC or less, very rough and broad
2 Very rough AC, very harsh and broad
3 Rough AC tone, rectified but not filtered
4 Rough note, some trace of filtering
5 Filtered rectified AC but strongly ripple-modulated
6 Filtered tone, definite trace of ripple modulation
7 Near pure tone, trace of ripple modulation
8 Near perfect tone, slight trace of modulation
9 Perfect tone, no trace of ripple or modulation of any kind
Infrequently used is the addition of a letter to the end of the 3 numbers. These are: X = the signal is rock steady like a crystal controlled signal; C = the signal is chirpy as the frequency varies slightly with keying; and K = the signal has key clicks.
X is from the early days of radio when such steady signals were rare. Today most all signals could be given an X but it is hardly ever used. It is helpful to report a chirpy or clicky signal by using the C or K, e.g. 579C or 579K.